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Flight 100 Years Of Aviation

As part of our centenary celebration, throughout 2014 we shared a diverse range of aviation stories and editorials. From the inspirational to the practical to the offbeat, these stories demonstrate the extent to which the world is shaped by commercial aviation.

Flight 100 Years Of Aviation

Aviation is still so young that a 100-year anniversary for any aviation entity is a rare thing indeed, but this year industry leader Honeywell is celebrating 100 years at making aviation better in every conceivable way.

In this 13-part docuseries, Rick Kennedy captures the excitement of how a small team of engineers and machinists near the end of World War I transformed GE into an industry-leading aviation company with more than 47,000 employees in 26 countries.

GE Aerospace is a world-leading provider of commercial, military and business and general aviation jet and turboprop engines and components as well as avionics, electrical power and mechanical systems for aircraft. GE has a global service network to support these offerings. GE and its customers are also working together to unlock new opportunities to grow and deliver more productivity beyond traditional services. GE Aerospace is becoming a digital industrial business with its ability to harness large streams of data that are providing incredible insights and in turn, real operational value for customers.

1936 marked the first time that United Airlines created the first airline kitchen. Until the 1950s, there was no economic class. All passengers received the same luxury treatment; meals, magazines, and quality seats were provided with all flights, a luxury now that would require you to pay for a first-class seat.

Towards the end of the decade, in 1948, Capital Airlines created the first coach fares for passengers. Before this, all flights were priced the same, but this allowed an entirely new set of passengers to experience air travel. This allowed for a wider group of people to purchase flights.

1971 marked a significant time when Buffer Airlines added technology to their flights for the first time. Passengers were offered the option of playing Pong while onboard their flight, marking the first use of video games on a flight. This was a critical movement for airlines and began a new start to entertainment for passengers on board.

Yet another crucial moment in the history of aviation was when Southwest Airlines offered their first e-tickets or electronic tickets to passengers in 1994. The goal with e-tickets, besides keeping up with the world of ever-changing and advancing technology was to eliminate the complications of paper tickets getting lost or stolen.

Passengers faced new security mandates after a plot to place liquid explosives was uncovered in 2006. New security mandates strictly enforced rules on liquids that passengers could carry on flights and the quantity that passengers could bring on flights with them on their carry-on.

In 2012, Delta announced a lower-cost fare cost for passengers that was known as the basic economy. These flights included less than any other, including little to no baggage, no advance seat assignments, and had many other restrictions to them. This was an important part of aviation changing from what it had always been and to the advancements that were being made.

Rick Kennedy (pictured on right) is a retiree, former Media Relations leader and author of GE Aviation: 100 Years of Reimagining Flight, to be released in June. In his Purpose Talk, Kennedy talks about the past century of how GE Aviation influenced the future of flight.

Hi Gabriel, The book is available on Amazon. -Aviation-Years-Reimagining-Flight/dp/1939710995/ref=sr_1_1?crid=3KG8N5URCXRGU&keywords=100+years+of+reimagining+flight&qid=1568738684&sprefix=100+years+of+reim%2Caps%2C-1&sr=8-1

But with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) aiming for one billion passengers to have flown on a sustainable aviation fuel-blend flight by 2025, the sector needs to aim higher when it comes to green innovation.

But there are also genuinely revolutionary ideas on the drawing board for intelligent, shape-shifting aircraft that know how to morph in flight to suit flying conditions, thereby saving fuel and flying more efficiently.

Looking at where aviation will be in the next 20 years and beyond, IATA predicts passenger numbers could double to 8.2 billion in 2037, so substantial solutions to tackle emissions are urgently needed. But could every flight be run on 100% sustainable aviation fuel in this century?

Gray expects the future of aviation to rely upon a more cohesive system between aviation, aerospace and ground-transportation systems, with airspace management needing to be optimized, and with both government and businesses working together to ensure environmental considerations in the air and on the ground.

Mickey: Our legacy shows our commitment to naval aviation success. Northrop Grumman and its legacy companies have been strong partners in developing and delivering carrier fighter aircraft for over 90 years now. We delivered the first operational carrier-based aircraft to the Navy, and we were the prime industry partner on the F-14 Tomcat.

Breaking Defense: How have aircraft like Triton and E-2D factored into Project Overmatch exercises, for example, and other joint exercises that Navy carrier groups have participated in over the last couple years?

Breaking Defense: Over the next three to five years, JADC2 and distributed maritime operations will need to be dependent on capabilities like autonomous operations. How will Northrop Grumman support the Navy with autonomy and other sorts of distributed capabilities?

And then, of course, the F-14 Tomcat, which entered service in 1970. This fighter aircraft incorporated all the lessons learned from those previous combat experiences against other fighters. That aircraft included so many innovations to naval aviation, and there were just over 700 of those platforms built.

Mickey: One of our tenets is a commitment to shared success. We are certainly committed to shared success with naval aviation in the future. We are proud of our engagement and partnership with the Navy.

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In the 1930s the relationship between flying and safety was summarised cryptically by a First World War pilot who became an aviation insurer, Capt A G Lamplugh. He provided the industry with what is still recognised as the definitive description of the risks faced by those who would fly: "Aviation in itself is not inherently dangerous. But to an even greater degree than the sea, it is terribly unforgiving of any carelessness, incapacity or neglect."

Somewhat earlier, Wilbur Wright had written to his father: "In flying I have learned that carelessness and overconfidence are usually far more dangerous than deliberately accepted risks." Wright's assessment of the safety issue is more or less synonymous with the well-established concept of "calculated risk", and pre-dates by about 90 years today's increasingly precise science of "risk management". This science is based on a tacit acceptance that no activity, including flying, can be completely risk-free, but that risk should be managed so as to remain within acceptable bounds. What is deemed acceptable is subjective and varies according to societal perceptions.

In the hope of globalising the approach to risk in aviation, the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the world's leading aviation regulators have, in recent years, required that a closed-loop "safety management system" (SMS) should be a part of every commercial flying organisation. But the SMS concept took 100 years of aviation to emerge, and it will be years before it has been globally implemented.

No aviation safety expert today could add anything of substance to the wisdom contained in Lamplugh's and Wright's observations. Aviation is, however, clearly far safer than it used to be in the early 1900s. So what other factors have brought about the improvement?

But knowledge and wisdom often gets lost or goes unheeded. Lederer's icing advice did. In 2005 the US Federal Aviation Administration echoed the essentials of his statement on icing in an airworthiness directive issued 70 years after he drew attention to the problem. The agency said: "Even small amounts of frost, ice, snow or slush on the wing leading edges or forward upper wing surfaces can cause loss of control at take-off." The stimulus for the AD was an accident report about the crash on take-off of a Bombardier Challenger 604 business jet at Birmingham, UK in January 2002. It had been left on the ramp overnight and not de-iced before take-off was attempted.

As the machinery became more reliable, and therefore the causes of accidents were less often technical, the role of the human became the focus of those who would improve aviation safety, and the study of human factors in aviation got seriously under way in the 1970s. This covered not only the on-board crew, but human factors in maintenance.

Cockpit or flightdeck design was slowly improved in ergonomic terms during the 1960s, and when - at the dawn of the 1980s - cathode ray tube instrument displays (later replaced by liquid crystal displays), digital avionics and flight management computers became ascendant, a new piece of human factors terminology was born: crew situational awareness. 350c69d7ab

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